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2.27.10 logo depois dos trabalhos monadicos, em rebus de fato assui o brinquedo - todos os sus tipos, misturados - como material. trata-se de um meio de incrivel complexidade, que me permitiu usar imagens densas - a foto de hyppolyte bayard, por exemplo, que simula afogar-se em protesto por nao ser reconhecido como um dos inventores da fotografia - para lancar o alegorico no centro do realistico. o brinquedo reproduz a dinamica da vida adulta, do futuro, nao raro o mais cruel, mas de maneira inconsequente, numa escala menor, leve, que nao mata. e uma especie teatral de preparo a realidade, ao inevitavel porvir. utiliza-lo - explorar a ideia, as ideias do brinquedo - como material, possibilidade em que jamais pensara, significava lidar com un tipo de experiencia comum a todos. sou de uma deracao que ja se divertia com brinquedos de plastico - e me interessava testar esse carater artificial de sua composicao: derivado do petroleo, inegavelmente toxico, coloridissimo, extravagante. e curioso. os brinquedos vao se tornando rapidamente competitivos, a cada dia mais, e feios, progressivamente agressivos, esquisitos, com um inimaginavel poder de fogo; e, no entanto, continuam a ser simples brinquedos, simplesmente brinquedos. / rebus series 2003 > vic muniz .. .at this point in most large cities we can go through life without ever putting a foot on earth. we touch only parking lots, corridors, offices, shopping centers. we no longer live on this planet. we ahve constructed another place on the first. in trying to make these artificial landscapes appear "natural" like a self-evident necessity, they have entered into our collective subconscious. in this machine world, this world of mass consumption, the individual is a negligible residue. whis world of number, in return on investment, is an objectifying world without any counterbalance to allow for even the possibility of "otherness" leads only to the filling of shelves, the emptying of spirits. this society is so complex that we are all caught up in a gordian knot of causes and consequences. the project's appeal could come from its capacity to make us feel "unglued" from reality. it didn't matter to me what those factories made, what was constructed or abandoned there, because these places become the actors, the representative of a collective history. "floating signifiers" forming a chain of heterogeneous forms, a mythology of postmodern spaces. i could not help from finding beauty there, at the heart of uglyness > cedric delsaux - a common destiny .. . [stan douglas] perhaps the most crucial and reviled tech innovations of the eighties were those video effect generators, culminating in the video toaster which allowed video effects to be produced really quickly. mtv started broadcasting in 1981, and suddenly visual effects were very much in demand. many filmmakers saw their films as challenging and expanding perception or even the realm of politics and now something that you spent months perfecting, slaving over an optical printer, turns up enhancing the look of an ad for some rock group. ... a lot of work from the seventies and sixties that used presentational devices that were resurrected or, more likely, reinvented in the nineties. a lot of artists were unaware of this history and rediscovered these techniques for themselves... for a curator, there's a question of maintenance. how much is vintage video or film gear a part of the work? what can be updated and what cannot? as an artist i've taken to identifying my film works as "sculptures" to certain museums, just to avoid them deciding to transfer my films to dvd and projecting them on some crap lcd projector. the most notorious example of that was that warhol screen test exhibition where they projected the films in arbitrary sizes on canvasses with black frames. which is antithetical to what one imagines is the spirit of the work. an additional problem is that the distinct experiences of certain kinds of media are becoming less and less available and now lot of people can't distinguish between a film and a video or a video and a dvd. these are specific media with peculiar properties, but with the convergence of all media into data streams, their distinct phenomenologies are being forgotten. different frame rates, different gauges, different flavors of video > art of projection .. . legz got hooked on graffiti after seeing all the tags in paris and on the metro. his early spray-painted works were heavily influenced by the parisian legend bando. later, like many others, he adopted wildstyle and created his 'spaghetti' style which resembles entwined strings of pasta.he was also influenced by the different stles that stack, stone, rcf1 and popay were developing. his first spaghetti works were letters constructed in wildstyle, but later they evolved into pure freestyle objects. he has worked for various magazines and also published the book 'outlines'. i'm practising two forms of graffiti, he says, one the one hand, i paint spaghetti in silver and black on bare walls in places that are falling into decay; on the other, i spray-paint colorful frescoes with my crews. / 'droid-like' is how prolific dutch artist scage prefers to describe his style. the term refers to his stiff and lifeless letters which, according to the artist, have no flow. / stak is one of the best-known post-graffiti artists. from 1987, his work consisted of strictly classical graffiti pieces but in 1995, as he tried to think of a way to stand out from the thousands of tags across paris, he came up with a logo. encompassing stickers, texts, and murals, his work is a form of wild advertising on the street through which he tries to analyze the relationship between the street, the art world, fashion and the media. stak now works increasingly in galleries and likes the idea of putting elements from pop culture in art spaces, as if they were masterpieces. in 2003 he launched world signs magazine > graffiti world .. . anthony mccall is a film artist but is also mentioned in the same breath as light art personalities such as dan flavin and james turrell. born in great britain in 1946, he was already one of the pioneering figures of the avant-garde london film scence. line describing a cone is mccall's first 16mm film and simultaneously also his most-exhibited installation. a light beam is projected in a darkened room. the beam emanates from a film projector. starting off with a white point, it grows into a circle over the course of the 30min duration. light materializes by means of thick, theatrical fog and as a volume - a cone of light with sharp contours is created between projector and surface, becoming a tangible body, rather than treating the light beam as a carrier of information. the light is not intended as an artful mise-en-scene of the existing space, and is certainly not intended to lead to a meditative or mystic perception. the light is what it is. the circle is reduced to its geometric characteristics > art of projection

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9.1.09 i'm relying on the physical properties of the material before me, going where it naturally wants me to go. so that things always wind up mimicking nature in a way. i had never been to the southwest when i made the tar paper sculpture. then i went to arizona and new mexico and everything looks like the sculpture. i think when i make stuff i go through this whole range of emotions, starting with i'm a fraud, i'm never going to be able to make anything ever again, till i get to that moment where the matrial does something that is just beyond me. it lands in a place somewhere between the limits of my knowledge and whatone is capable of knowing. the nickel-plated copper electrical cable, with very fine wires. i was cutting the material into quarter-inch pieces and separating it wall with my hands and putting it all into a bucket and the stuff had the most amazing sense of adhesion, where if you clumped a fistful really hard you'd really have to pick it apart to get it loose again. i kept trying to make something with it. packed it into molds, threw clumps of it at other clumps, sprinkled it into anthills. nothing was working and i was about to give up. at one point i swept my hands along the floor and all the fibers interlocked and formed a ripple. and i rem at that moment that's what it is. what's what it will do > tara donovan .. . anthony mccall is a film artist but is also mentioned in the same breath as light art personalities such as dan flavin and james turrell. born in great britain in 1946, he was already one of the pioneering figures of the avant-garde london film scence. line describing a cone is mccall's first 16mm film and simultaneously also his most-exhibited installation. a light beam is projected in a darkened room. the beam emanates from a film projector. starting off with a white point, it grows into a circle over the course of the 30min duration. light materializes by means of thick, theatrical fog and as a volume - a cone of light with sharp contours is created between projector and surface, becoming a tangible body, rather than treating the light beam as a carrier of information. the light is not intended as an artful mise-en-scene of the existing space, and is certainly not intended to lead to a meditative or mystic perception. the light is what it is. the circle is reduced to its geometric characteristics > number one: destroy she said .. . chinese personification of the animal realm, anthropomorphism, in both positive and negative terms, is a topic vast enough to fill many a book. the horse, for example, was universally known metaphor for the government servant, strong and docile. as chinese concepts of justice would have it, in intentionally violating the official order of things, one offends against civilization itself, abandons one's humanity, becomes no more than a "barbarian" and deserves no more mercy than an animal, for whom the chinese have traditionally had little empathy. many of china's minority peoples and surrounding "uncivilized tribes" had names which were written by characters using the dog-radical [xianyun and di of the north, the quan-rong of the nw highlands, the hui muslims of the west], or the sheep/boat-radical [the qiang or jiang-rong] or the insect-radical [the man of the south]. but none of these generics, writes endymion wilkinson, have influenced chinese langauge as much as hu [the basic meaning is dewlap, hence beard, hence bearded ones, hence barbarians, hence foreigners] a memory of the strange ways in which the non-han spoke is reflected in the many expressions beginning with hu such as huche [talk nonsense] hushuo [drivel] hushuo badao [talk rubbish] huchou [body odor] or hugao [promiscuous or mess things up] > body in question: image and illusion in two chinese films by jiang wen .. . vinaros is on the mediterranean coast of spain, near the delta of ebro, halfway between barcelona and valencia. the length of the coastline and the surface area of the municipality are constantly changing as a result of the action of the sea, which produced continual land slippage and erosion. the coves and points points appear at first sight to be far removed from the ideal virgin state of what could be described as natural. on the small scale however, it becomes clear that this sequence of coves and outcrops, micro-inlets, pools of seawater, stones eroded, and rocks shaped by tide, has an exceptional beauty. our project has consisted in creating hexagonal timber platforms with a constant length of side based on the scale of the human body. these micros-coasts are organized to form islands of variable size, located where there is rock in close proximity to the sea. the platforms are composed of just two different pieces, one flat, the other with a microtopography, which serve to generate surfaces that can be flat or partially or fully folded. following their installation along the coast, people were quick to appropriate the new microcoasts. vinaros micro-costs, castellon, spain, 2007 [marta male-alemany] > geo logics .. . loblolly house was assembled not constructed. assembly, is fast, can be performed with rudimentary skill and simple tools; construction takes much longer, is complex and often requires considerable training and specialized equipment. assembly depends on factory-controlled cutting, prefitting, drilling and jigging. construction is directed by unwritten knowledge passed along through apprenticeship. one can begin to imagine a new market based on relocation instead of demolition. often times, real estate cycles force the market to abandon buildings long before their constituent materials have carried out their life cycles. the scaffold represents the beginning of an idea about architecture's obligation to downcycling. the scaffold reinterprets structure. it is a fulcrum of possibilities for structuring space and provides an open network for connection, extension and relocation > loblolly house .. . knowledge and technology were exploited to compensate for miltary and financial ineriority. modern fortifications designed by able military architectes, including sanmicheli, reinforced the cities. land improvement increased agricultural production and self-sufficiency, as marcantio barbaro was able to tell the grand vizier sokollu; public and private building improved the appearance and health of the cities, contributed to the economy and increased the state's prestige, being an indicator of wealth and hence military potential. it is scarcely surprising that palladio, a friend of powerful intellectuals, should have taken an interest in a very wide range of subjects: miltary matters, the organization of the villa and land drainage, and bridges, public buildings and ideal urban schemes, described in book iii of the quattro libri. "it seemed to me something worthy of a man, who should not just be born for his own ends, but also to be useful to others, to publish the designs of those buildings, which i have put together in the course of many years and at much personal danger, and briefly set out those rules which i have followed in building" in this he follows vitriuvius, who wrote that both practical experience and a general philosophical, literary and cultural orientation were essential for the architect > palladio four books on architecture .. . at midnight on 5.14.1504 a crew of 40 men smashed thorugh the wall of the duomo workshop in florence and rolled michelanglos's 17 foot high statue of david out into the dark streets. the citizens of florence had recently overthrown the medici to re-estabilish a republic and supporters of the medici spent much of david's 4-day journey pelting the statue with rocks. the block of carrara marble that became david had been sitting in the duomo yard since 1466. as chunks of carrara marble go, it was garbage. experienced carvers worked only with statuario - the highest grade of hard, flawless, pure white carrara marble. the duomo block was the porous and pitted stone the quarrymen called ordinario. it was so mediocre that the 26 year old michelangelo had gotten it for free. the architects known as the maestri comancini, who descended on carrara during the great church-building years, made the local marble key elements of the churches and domes of florence, siena, pisa, orvieto, genoa, and lucca, continuing a tradition that reaches back to the pantheon and trajan's column in rome and abroad to london's marble arch and beyond > edward burtynsky quarries .. . originally commissioned by galleria continua and first built in 2003, ascension requires conditions of air movement analogous to a tornado and consists of a central fog-filled vorted extending from floor to ceiling, accessed by the public through curving, tapering passageways. it has since been shown, each time incorporating site-specific adaptations, in rio de janeiro, brasilia, sao paolo and beijing. through fine-tuning the flows of air, we could establish the vortex a tthe boundary of instability where its character is constantly changing under the influence of tiny disturbances such as drafts and movement of people. ascension does not seek to explain how a vortex works, but to communicate on metaphrical level. its exact means of formation is intentionally left to the imagination > anish kapoor memory .. . without the light, it would be nothing. designed by super potato, the night-only burgundy bar in jakatra is an example of how commercial lighting technology has advanced in the past decade or two. fiber optics and high output l.e.d replace the light bulb - with results that truly trip the light fantastic. the theme at burgundy is light explains norihiro shinya. the space has a vaeriety of light impressions, eg plain, streaked, colored, glittering. edge-lit glass dividers and a steel and glass wine cellar > asian bar and restaurant design .. . i don't have any favorites. every picture is equal but different. i had this notion of what i call democratic way of looking around: that nothing was more important or less important. since the common process for printing color slides did not produce satisfactory results, upon discovering the dye transfer process in the catalogue of a color lab in 1974, eggleson decided to try it. the most expensive print from a slide that the laboratory offered, because it could be produced only by hand, dye transfer developed by kodak in the forties in which the image was transferred to a paper support in a succession of 3 color separations. the end result was a very color-stable print, one in which, in contrast to conventional printing, individual colors could be changed or intensified without influencing the compementary color. until the advent of digital photography, dye transfer was the only procedure that allowed control over individual elements. it was a very old process used almost completely for fashion advertising. they would do the final prints and dye transfer them. i never heard of it being used for noncommercial or art photography, what i was doing. and i had two prints made right away. i was astonishd how good the material was > william eggleston .. . the photograph is highly structured, so you don't think it is a real home or a real room, but, a room made to evoke something. it's a room in your mind. i don't have productive dreams. my dreams are all psychological and they are not imaginative. my photographs do come from memory, and in a sense my memory is like a dream. when you stare at something and take off someplace for a minute, that is a dream > jo ann callis woman twirling .. . amirali ghasemi: in contrast to the prejudicial images of the international mass media, the series party attempts to visualize another side of tehran. in collaboration with artists, designers, musicians and dj's, tehran remixed multimedia journey into tehran's underground life, an adventure through the invisible veins of the metropolis, lost in secret, wicked, hedonistic dreams, private parties of chilled-out intellectuals; crowded streets with teenage girls waiting for a ride; internet surfers showing off over web cams in the dead of night. to protect the young in these photographs, their faces [and skin] are blanked out.. . kaveh golestan: i spent 8 years looking at death through my camera. i often felt like a culture, for i seemed to be traveling in helicopers to find the dead. death and become my companion. i kept a handkerchief with me to cover my nose and mouth. i do not have much emotion left to give. i have already seen the end.. . rodin hamidi: looking at the buildings, streets, parking lots, gardens of tehran has always fascinated me. urban architecture paves the way to understanding the lifestyle and cultural background of a specific place. looking through my venetian blinds at dawn, i tried to capture the atmosphere of familiar streets inmy neighborhood. always using a zoom lends that can capture elements of a landscape that the eye cannot see > iranian photography now .. . [the hunt - 1:11 color video and photos] for a week, jankowski lives off goods he hunts own in the supermarket. archaically armed with bow and arrow, and yet nobly pushing his cart, he shoots down deep-frozen chickens, margarine, bathroom tissue, and all the other things he needs. unimpressed, the checkout woman scans the trophies of the bargain hunt, which still have the arrows sticking out of them / [and your bird can sing] jankowski visits a chinese factory in which [seminar - self-positioning in the art world, 31:18 color video] jankowski develops a video training course for emerging artists. the students selected personalities from the berlin art scene to discuss various key moments of an artist's professional life, eg meeting an important curator. however the texts were written by the students themselves - their celebrity "teachers" had words put into their mouths. the success strategies introduced are given an art-historical commentary by a presenter. [telemistica, 22:00 color video] in 1999 jankowski received an invitation to the 48th biennale in venice. he thereupon called 5 italian tv fortune-tellers, asking them to predict his future as an artist and foretell the success of his biennale contribution. the answers, largely positive, are recorded life and subsequently presented as jankowki's work in venice. the work turns out to be a self-fulfilling prophecy, since telemistica contributed fundamentally to the artist's breakthrough. [playing with sponsor money, photo and typography] the search is on for sponsors for the cover design of an issue of the art magazine texte zur kunst. in return, the sponsors are guaranteed that their name will appear on the cover of the magazine. having collected the sponsorship money, jankowski goes off to the casino to play roulette, so that he can use his projected winnings to obtain the finest possible image for the cover. however, the artist loses. he ends up having to present the sponsors' names on the cover using a cheap potato print > christian jankowski briefing

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5.28.09 imagine a hot, stifling, humid summer afternoon in chicago circa 1980: sunburns on unprotected shoulders and noses, t-shirts clinging to sweat-drenched bodies. loud boom boxes create a din that rises above the throng. armed with a polaroid instant 4x5, barbara crane may have relied on the free-flowing chaos of the crowd, but her approach was hardly passive. she selected the liveliest time of day, the harshest light, the densest throngs, and the most bustling areas, prepared to exploit the unexpected. in one photograph, two disembodied hands tie string to the belt loop of a little girl's jeans. her plaid blouse, an arm, the tip of her elbow and her upper thighs are captured within the picture frame. the balloon that must be at the end of the string is not visible nor are her head and shoulders. what is crane's point in constructing this truncated view? is it simply a record of abstract color blocks comprised of juxtaposed fabrics, flesh and string - or is there an expressive quality that suggests tenderness and affection in this simple, everyday gesture? crane's images are cerebral, eccentric, and have an abstract edge, yet to satisfy her they must also have the emotional aura. 'many of my photographic ideas have grown from chance or accident, both visually and technically or from a gift of the subject matter itself. fortunately, this way of working seems to expand my ideas and to continuously generate new visual experiences while trying to make order of chaos. one idea becomes the platform for the next one > private views .. . the lavish lifestyle of the french aristocracy and its accompanying arts, rudely interrupted by the fall of the monarchy in summer 1792, made a tentative reappearance after the death of roberspierre before experiencing a true renaissance under the directoire. and once napoleon had declared himself emperor, he never ceased in his quest to make paris into the showcase of the civilized world. there was no member of the imperial family, no marechal of the empire, no bourgeouis gentilhomme who did not aspire to live in one of the great houses left abandoned by the flight of their former owners. these nouveaux riches invented a new way of living and they entrusted its architecural setting to such talented men as percier, fontaine and bethault. society still demanded salons where visitors could be received, music could be heard, and billiards could be played. ideally they would be on the ground floor, so that people could enjoy the garden as well. but most parisians lived in houses whose different floors accomodated people from different social classes: shopkeepers occupy the lower part; rich people the 1st floor; persons in easy circumstances, the 2nd; people in office, the 3rd; working men, the 4th; and the distressed part of the community, the higher storeys. j lavallee 1803 > empire splendor .. . 'maybe it's the air, maybe it's the altitude, maybe it's just the place's goddamn karma, but frank's establishment in palm springs, the only house we really could ever call our own, has seen some pretty amazing occurrences. it was a subject of probably the most spectacular fight of our young married life.' the fight began when ava banished frank from her pacific palisades boudoir, 'which paved the way for what i have to admit was a truly memorable exit line. ok! ok! if that's the way you want it, i'm leaving. and if you want to know where i am, i'm in palm springs fucking lana turner.' twin palms, 1947 es williams. > ranch houses: living the california dream .. . a quick look through the macclesfield psalter shows the lofty mingling with the low, the serious with the ludicrous, the sophisticated with the primitive, the official with the subversive, and the refined with the crude. sacred and solemn images are surrounded by irreverent and obscene marginalia. standard biblical subject matter rubs shoulders with typical literary and artistic motifs on the one hand and, on the other with consciously archaizing scenes. sequential pictorial narratives feature alongside isolated episodes shown out of context, and stories told out of order or even in reverse. elegantly swaying figures with placid and sweet facial expressions, often perceived as representatives of 'courtly' art that fluorished in aristocratic circles on both sides of the channel, coexist with ordinary folk engaged in mundane tasks and enjoying a healthy dose of earthy humor. people and activities share the page with wondrous hybrids. highly stylized foliage together with keen observation of nature. exaggerated close-ups juxtaposed with extreme miniaturization. > the macclesfield psalter .. . i once tried to sell a monet to an eastern potentate. through a geological freak - huge resources of oil - this man was rich to a degree that set him apart. 'so' he said, 'this will cost 7 million at auction?' i told him it would, possibly more. 'but how can that be? for this work by gerome i paid only 900,000.' the gerome is very good one but the monet is more highly prized on the market. 'but this man monet does not know how to paint, not as well as gerome. the color is jarring. the figures are awkward. the strokes are too broad. they are not precise. there is no detail.' impressionism began in france in the 2nd half of the 19th century as a revolutionary movement producing pictures that people found once difficult to understand but now have become icons of extreme wealth, so much so that a monet, renoir, van gogh now has a connotation that is as much financial as artistic: besides conjuring a vivid pictorial world, the names of these artists are like a unit of currency in their own right. impressionist/anti-impressionist: conviviality/anguish; beaches/battle scenes; recreation/morality; gardens/death; streets & cafes/anecdote; race meetings/emotional profundity; sea views/shipwrecks; undulating countryside/precipitous landscape; sunshine/night; cornfields & sunlit snow scenes/storms & floods > the ultimate trophy .. . i did not want to create a subjective narrative with my images. i wanted to show what turkey is or could be. some images pursue a rather objective approach. others are more intimate. the limits of photography are set. photography can only show surfaces. it cannot show their context, what is hidden behind the surface. consequently. it is difficult to take photographs in complex environments. taking photographs often means learning on the spot. even in a very tense situation you have to understand what is actually going on. when four tanks and a group of angry men are standing in front of your camera, you have to grasp what they stand for, although you'd rather run away > mihriban: turkey 2004-2007 .. . i was born in 1981, in a small village in the province of jiangxi, on the banks of the yangtze. i was picked to represent the town in a modelling competition taking place in beijing. i was 16 years old and i had never been to the capital. the competition was tight. i could tell that the judges didn't know what to make of me. in their eyes i was neither beautiful nor ugly. i was just different, which was why in the end i came 2nd. different - that was the word that from then on was always used to describe me. i called my mother to tell her i was going to try my luck in beijing. i found a job pretty quickly. i was offered 300 y a day to wear a qi pao in teh cafe of the city hotel. tony li the hairdresser and feng hai the photograph watched me. they asked me to stand up, to turn around. then they smiled. i was embarrassed. other models looked me up and down with an air of frank distaste. but i experienced that thrilling feeling of someone looking at me because they found me beautiful. then paris-match, all the magazines snatched up the pictures. without realising it, i had set off a small revolution. how could such an ugly girl be considered attractive by so many? she can't be chinese, she must be korean...' lu yan, a model at the top > chinese portraits

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4.25.09 in counter-reformation italy, the moral edification of the populace, especially of the illiterate, was considered the key purpose of the art of painting. cardinal paleotti, the archbishop of bologna, formalized this view of his discorso intorno alle imagini sacre e profane of 1582, asserting that the principal aim of christian painting is to persuade and induce the people to embrace something pertinent to religion. in order for a painting to fulfill its role as a means of moral instruction, the composition had to express its message in a clear and legible manner. as in any nonverbal communication, facial and gestural expression is crucial, whereas the legs and feet are less essential. guido reni, simone cantarini, and carlo cignani each responded differently to the task of depicting the decisive moment in the encounter of joseph and his masters wife, but all of them chose a 3/4 length format concentrating on the upper body and bringing the viewer into a close contact with the figures > captured emotions .. . that the pentagon kept journalists at central command h.q. in doha, qatar while baghdad was being bombed gives the expression theater of operations a whole new meaning. weapons of mass deception shows general tommy franks saying: this platform is not a platform for propaganda, this is a platform for truth, in poker-faced denial; the pentagon was busy feeding the us public fabricated stories like that of jessica lynch, the private supposedly saved from iraqi abductors by u.s. soldiers when she was in fact being treated for wounds in an iraqi hospital. w.m.d emphasizes the lies by showing real infrared footage retrieved from pentagon archives, while showing how u.s. media were already recasting the story intertextually to the spielberg epic saving private ryan [1998], introducing the story as saving private lynch > images of war, war of images .. . it was, of course, in the 1980s in which cinematic visions exercised our imaginations, that photography first met with the emerging technology of digital imaging. this also exercised our imaginations and, for some, this meeting was a fatal encounter. in the view of william mitchell, for example, the door began to shut on a century and a half during which chemical photography had temporarily stabilized the the "process of image making" in the service of an era dominated by science and industrialization. in his view, as digital simulation looked set to displace the photographic record, an age - a short 150-year interlude-"of false innocence had passed." as part of this discourse, ideas about a new "digital aesthetic" and an "age of electro-bricolage" began to be rehearsed. henceforth, image making would be characterized by "appropriation, transformation, reprocessing and recombination" chemical photography would give way to a "post-photography" privileging "fragmentation" indeterminacy and heterogeneity" over the presumed objectivity and unity of traditional photographs > the electric image .. . the new commercial landscape was vividly presented on television, where the setting of the average show, inner-city crime drama or suburban comedy, revolved around characters either shooting around the urban landscape in cars, or stranded in a suburban house. the televised context of these shows was as commercial as the cities in which they were set, lodge between the advertising spots that qualified all video entertainment. it is this double context, between the physical facts of the city and the economic realities of the media, that stan douglas' 1991 video, monodramas, is set. each piece presents what might be the germ of a dramatic situation - one that does not unfold. a man is called by the wrong name. another sees somtrhing suspicious from his balcony and checks it out in the bush below. a bus and a car almost collide. these short pieces, either 30 or 60 seconds in length, were made to be lodged between commercials on broadcast television, with no indication of their origin or function. the portentousness of each is qualified and undermind by its being forced into the temporal structure of the commercial message, and the possibility that a genuine drama might occur is constrained by the instrumentality of its context within the medium. one is reminded that no longer are there dramas, only melodramas > stan douglas .. . joseph beuys' view is helpful in this context. his concept of art is linked to the creative commitment that each one of us must possess in modeling our own existence and the world in which we live. everyone is an artist and creativity is a characteristic common to all humans, to such an extent that art becomes the only truly revolutionary force that enables us, through invention and freedom, to make of life a living sculpture, and with it the duty to take responsibility and the freedom to act to try to change the social structure with these tools. by freedom beuys means the freedom of an individual but also of a person in his dealings with others. he believes in communicating to show what we have produced with our freedom thereby bringing into the open what everyone thinks > free zone: china .. . at first - from 1989 to 1993 - demand built tables, furniture, objects and tools for everyday use out of cardboard and then photographed them. their transformation however was not effected for the purpose of 'freezing' them as artworks but rather to render their contents highly 'meaningful' in order to transport them from a subjective interpretative condition to a 'golden' state created by the reading given them by photography's impersonal gaze. in this procedure the artist gathers' them together to form an enigmatic environment and transforms them through an approach that hints at a reality emanating from the image, annulling the fetishistic nature of the object and artifact. by thus suspending the image through a fictitious reconstruction, demand achieves a tactical artifice that cloaks in mystery the gaze's reading of things and architecture. he creates in the viewer an unsureness, an anxious attention to them. one realizes that the virtual reconstruction explains nothing whatsoever, but only refers to a greater fullness of meaning > thomas demand: processo grottesco .. . i, sam hsieh, plan to do a one year performance piece. i shall punch a time clock in my studio every hour on the hour for one year. i shall immediately leave my time clock room, each time after i punch the time clock. the performance shall begin on 4.11.80 at 7pm and continue until 4.11.81 at 6pm. in order to avoid any suspicion of cheating on the piece, i have prepared the following steps: i shall have a witness sign each of the 366 time cards for the total one year performance. he will sign a statement agreeing not to sign any additional time cards. he will also sign and seal the time clock. at any time repair or adjustment of the time clock is needed, he will return and witness it. with a 16mm movie camera, i shall document each time i punch the time clock by shooting one frame. at the completion of the performance, the witness will confirm that the film is unedited. to help illustrate the time process, i shall begin the performance with my head shaved bald and allow my hair to grow back naturally > out of now .. . it was manzoni at the turn of the decade who expressed the need for a new approach and indicated possible directions in the second issue of the magazine azimuth: the creation of new conditions and the emergence new problems require not only new solutions but also new methods and new measures. you cannot leave the ground by running and jumping: you need wings. modifications are not enough: the transformation must be total. and these new wings led directly to a challenging of the methods and the very conception of painting. as manzoni went on to say, i cannot understand painters who claim to be interested in modern problems but still address the painting as though it were a surface to be filled with shapes and colors. the paintings are finished. a surface of boundless possibilities is now reduced to a sort of recipient into which unnatural colors and artificial meanings are forced and compressed. why not empty this recipient instead? why not free this surface? why not try to discover the boundless meaning of total space and pure and absolute light > 1946-1968: the birth of contemporary art .. . often there was dead space on the big outdoor signs, so i didn't have to pay to exhibit because the operators welcomed content. with those outdoor signs, i was able to work without using any art materials, and the first little l.e.d. boards i bought were humble objects. when i began to install site-specific electronics in museums and had to reply to the superb and even competitive architecture, fabrication complexity and material costs went up. same expensive story when i wanted to make sculpture with led arrays that were more intricate and visual. in the mid-1990s, it was good to find projection equipment that could be rented, that didn't have to be purchased. and i very much like that the projected works are immaterial - light only. plus many of the buildings chosen as screens have occupants and histories worth highlighting, inviting benign gatherings of people at night. there is not a hard split between what's being presented and the audience, so people are not passive. they become the scene. projections will alter public space by changing the light, sound and speed > jenny holzer .. . the beginning of the 18th century did not represent a new beginning in architecture to the same extent that it did in painting. the principal features defined by the grand siecle were then reaching perfection. private architecture is characterized by a strengthening in the contrast between the refinement of the dedans (interior) and the apparent simplicity of the exterior. the principles of room arrangement honed during the previous century were further refined: this art of distribution reached its zenith, with an increased concentration on room specialization and on improving the freedom of movement of the occupants. following the lead of louis xv, who willingly forsook the majestic but uncomfortable ceremonial halls of his grandfather, private individuals too, driven by a new idea of well being, went in for smaller, more agreeable rooms that would be easier to heat. private apartments were added to their grander cousins: beyond the bedchamber, architects would make room for a boudoir or cabinet, a closet, a bathroom or even for rooms dubbed "secret" - a hidden staircase, a small dining room, a cabinet - because, as an architect of the time had it - people like better to occupy a place where they are nice and snug > baroque architecture: 1600-1750 .. . gabellini sheppard in 1996 completed a flagship showroom, design studio, and office space for jil sander in her hometown of hamburg. the 4-level, 18k ft^2 former residence set within a 3 acre private park on the banks of lake alster had been damaged in ww2 and never fully restored by the financial agencies that subsequently occupied it. the showroom's luminous open spaces, rigorous geometries, optical sleight-of-hand, and honed natural materials sculpt a contemporary environment as thoroughly opulent as the 19th century original. invisible light sources dissolve plaster wall and ceiling surfaces into sculpted, paper-thin planes of light and shadow > gabellini: architecture of interior .. . for the 2006 house in trosa, it is materials and light, rather than form, which occupy the focus of attention and create atmosphere. a dedicated builder, with cabinet-making experience, guaranteed a high finish and precision of detailing. strategic choices of materials, products and surface finishes resulted in a reasonable construction outlay, despite the high level of detailing, in an evolving process of cooperation between client, builder and architect, with many things being resolved as we went along. rainwater shoes from the roof lead down into a pool. the water sends reflections into the house during the daytime and creates an evocative atmosphere in the evening when illuminated from beneath. arkitektstudio widjedal racki bergerhoff ab / mode of constr: loose timber, framework of spruce sawn on one face and kerto / surface finish: inner courtyards facades and duckboarding black-stained structural plywood, untreated gotland heartwood spruce coated with iron vitriol / indoor wooden walls, kitchen island oiled wenge-veneered mdf / floors walls, ceiling of sauna of spruce boards treated with iron virtiol > swedish architecture in wood: 2008 timber awards .. . the records of institutions of state had been housed within the tower since the 14th century at least but the squalor of the conditions in which the tower records were kept came to the fore in the early years of elizabeth i's reign. in 1564 a dispute had broken out between edward, lord stafford, an exchequer chamberlain, and william bowyer, keeper of the tower records. the argument principally concerned administrative jurisdiction over the records at the tower, but it also brought to light the worrying state of the tower records. in particular, complaint was made that the records had been dispersed within the tower and that some had recently been happened upon lying forgotten and fast disintegrating; in this manner, for lacke of good keping many of the records had been ymbecillid awaie > the white tower

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3.29.09 .. gathering together large numbers of highly valued objects such as books, antiquities, paintings and calligraphies has cultural impact even if the collection is not catalogued. concentrating the culturally most valued objects in the political center is a strong statement about the throne's place in the larger culture. those who get to view or use the collected objects will be able to attain insights that would not be possible if the collection had never been formed. one way huizong made political use of his collection was by displaying items to select audiences. in 1112 he had a recently acquired ancient jade tablet shown to officials. that same year, at a banquet for eleven senior officials, huizong took them to harmony revealed hall where paintings, calligraphies, and ancient vessels were laid out. in 1113 he had ancient vessels set out with replicas so that his officials could compare them. in 1119 he held another banquet that involved displaying selected items from the halls in which he kept his most prized possessions. in 1122 he had objects put on display to celebrate the construction of new quarters for the palace library. those who described these occasions presented huizong as having feelings much like those of private collections - he wanted to astonish viewers and enjoyed observing their reactions. at the same time, those who saw the objects with huizong there to explain them felt immensely privileged > accumulating culture .. the mini-malls series is the absence of people. los angeles is known for not having a street life, except for in your vehicle, so for me they relate to the freeway photographs, which were also completely empty. in the case of the mini-malls i wanted people to read the signs. the signs idenfity the communities. you can tell it's koreatown by the signage, or you can tell that it is south central. those mini-malls mark the entrance and exits of various populations. they are not like minimalls in the suburbs, which have starbucks and jamba juice. these are about the american dream for me. but they're very fragile. they change almost overnight. mini-malls are often forgotten about just like the freeways. they're the ugly side of l.a. - people don't really want to think about them. people who don't live in l.a. like them more. in europe people seem to be fascinated by them. in a way i was only able to see them myself after this long trip i made driving all around the rest of the country > catherine opie: american photographer .. the postmodern artificial landscape, with its ancient evocations, shows remarkable similarities to the english garden. the island of tiengemeten, covering a thousand hectares in the haringvliet sea arm was farmland when the natuurmonumenten society bought it in 1997. recently 'reconstructed,' the farmers have left, the farms have disappeared, and with very precise planning and powerful machines the island has been given the appearance of unspoiled nature. long-haired prehistoric cattle specially bred for the new landscapes wade through the painstakingly ruined and flooded fields. this is the new park for the southern section of the randstad, the densely populated urban agglomeration comprising rotterdamn, the hague, amsterdam and utrecht. the public can hike and enjoy the view in planned natural areas. the merchandising of this primitive, prisine nature requires properly administered experiences. these are staged to provide spectators with pleasing images of yesteryear: a haystack, an old boundary marker, a quaint little field where a traditional crop grows. another factor responsible for the erosion of the historic agrarian landscape may well be the most significant: the limited historical knowledge among the public, nature conservationists and policy makers - those who question the public about historical characteristics when no one can define what these are, not even the questioner > nature as artifice: new dutch landscape in photography and video .. two sides of the laminata house in leerdam, by kruunenbeg van der evre architects, 2001, consists of 13k glass panes glued together. these act as a solid wall supporting the roof with different levels of transparency - the light varies according to the thickness and perspective. the massive glass walls provide protection from the sun, good heat insulation and a fascinating atmosphere > architecture materials: glass .. sometimes a simple solution can produce stunning results. the low-cost peabody trust housing development, silverton s.e. london, 2004, for one of uk's oldest housing associations, is a fine example. 3 block-shaped buildings housing 12 apartments are faced with gray brick at street level, on their side and rear elevation. clad with aluminum panels wedged between panes of glass and coated with 3m radiant light liner which reflects bright saturated purples, aquas, green, oranges and reds. architect niall mclaughlin calls it "disco film" because of its dancing surface which shifts constantly with light changes and onlooker distance and angle. "elegant tackiness." > 2 london new architecture .. exmouth market flourised for 80 or more years. by 1896 trucks and stalls with wares of all kinds lined the narrow road, and there seemed scarcely a square yard without a person on it. a contemporary novel evokes an evening scene here with naphta lamps flaring, the smell of butchers' shops, the pease pudding, gutters full of vegetables. the lure of the market evidently made the shops more lucrative, attracting further 'multiples'. decline came sharpy in the 1970s to both shops and the street market, where in 1984 there were only six stalls left in about 100 pitches. islington council tried to revive the market in 1986-8 with repaving and a 'relaunch' but the number of vacant properties increased. in 1992 when the street was included in the new rosebery ave conservation area, it was said to be 'a squalid and filthy slum'. in 1910: 4. tobacconist, 6. confectioner, 8. tailors, 10. china & glass dealer, 12-14. not known, 16. stewed eel shop, 18. chemist, 20. hosier, 22. greencrocer, 28. butcher, 30. boot & shoe dealer, 32. baker, 34. clothier, 36. not known, 38. hosier, 40. butcher, 42 china & glass dealer, 44. fishmonger, 46. provisions merchant, 48. butcher, 50. grocer, 52-54. grocer, 56. milliner, 58. grocer, 60. chemist, 62 pawnbroker, 64. grocer, 66. tailor, 68. pork butcher, 70. public house. 11. grocer, 13. butcher, 15. oil warehouse, 17. baker, 19. linendraper, 21. linendraper, 23. beerhouse, 25. ironmonger, 27. dining rooms, 29. pork butcher, 31. bootmaker, 33. draper, 35. cornmerchant, 37-39. cheesemonger, 41. watchmaker, 43. clothier, 45. furniture dealer, 47. bootmaker, 49. tobacco manufacturer, 51. surgeon, 53. grocer, 55. pork butcher, 57. fruiterer, 59. oil/colour mfr, 61. cheesemonger, 63. butcher, 65. linendraper > survey of london: xlvii northern clerkenwell and pentonville .. for most of my documentary projects i live with a single family and photograph them in their day-to-day life, whether a brazilian favela or namibian village. usually my work concentrates on how people survive and fluorish despite material shortcomings. i didn't go into china thinking that i would only photograph at night or at dusk. but the night photographs i was taking were far more interesting than those in the day. the neon lights from the shops and adverts produce this surreal manufactured environment which creates a feeling of hyperreality. we are in transition at the moment. in a few years changes will be in place and the chance to understand the transition will be lost > lovin' it .. large tv lamp: 1024 led lights are fixed evenly over the shape of a sphere, suspended from the ceiling. each light is programmed to correspond to the perceived color of a given pixel on an adjacent television screen. as the lights transmit the colors, the narrative of televIsion is translated into an abstraction of color over the spherical surface; endless study in three dimensions series comprises a selection of photographs showing the 3-dimensional dreawings of a harmonograph recorded through long-exposure photography. the hormonograph consists of three pendulums, set in motion along three different axes, the ends of which are conected at one point by hinged arms. situated at this point, a led light gyrates as a result of the movement. an infinite range of 3-dimensional line drawings can be produced that reflect the rhythms of the pendulums; between inside and outside: comprising 21 source-four spolight projectors arranged in a 15-min sequence of changing and superimposed trapezoids, ellipses an dcircles, vary in color. in response, visitors see afterimages overlapping with the colors projected onto the wall. since color is generally conceived as a product of the brain rather than existing independently of the world, the sequence is thus co-produced by the viewer > olafur eliasson: la naturalesa de les coses

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2.20.09 .. born in lubbock in 1946, drake established himself in el paso after college and graduate studies at the art center of design in los angeles. his family's business has factories in juarez, just on the other side of the border that cuts its scission between american power and a third world of poverty, of bare life. heiddeger states that the animal or plant has the word. language, science, mathematics, music, the formulation of statehood, are elaborations. the fierceness of the animal does not act against a world of connected ideas or approach a plateau of ideals because the animal does not form the meaning of a world, an image of the self within its greater sphere of being. man in his humanity lives in the realm of elaborations. hyde writes: like an octopus, odysseus could put on a rock-colored cloak if he needed to, but the octopus can never, like odysseus, dress as a beggar against regal surroundings. the octopus does not consider its coloration > james drake .. each mise-en-scene demands about 3 months of effort. it's very important to understand this about my work, the time it takes. it is necessary to analyze, to go very softly in order to make these images. i don't use a telephoto lens; i need to be close. i invented my own technique that permits me to see the bird clearly, sharply, and also to show parts of the landscape in various degrees of clarity. it is very complicated, and i've been working on it for thirty years. i start with a standard-focus lens, and then put the other lenses over it. these allow me to change the positions of the planes in front of me, the foreground, middle ground, and far distance. the lenses can turn in the camera, so i can be in the same place but have different points of view > jean luc mylayne .. i first started to think about left-right distinctions a few years ago when reading the five volumes of de tolnay's michelangelo [1947-60]. although this is the cornerstone of modern michelangelo studies, it is marred by its nebulous neo-platonic and nietzschean theorizing, and by its banal approach to l-r symbolism: eg, the different orientations of christ's hands in a crucifixion drawing [r hand up, l down] supposedly allude to the traditional belief in the 'right side as the side of good and the left as the side of evil.' tolnay conveniently ignored that in this image christ turns his head to his left - as the dead and dying christ does in so many of michelangelo's other works. this was a radical innovation as the crucified christ traditionally looked or faced to his right. nonetheless, i was intrigued as to where tolnay derived this idea, and the confidence to state it so boldly when michelangelo was reputedly a natural l-hander who had learned to draw with his r hand > the sinister side .. born in 1487, 4 years younger than raphael, giovanni was first trained in udine under giovanni martini. while working under him, the boy heard the works of michelangelo and raffaello so extolled, that he resolved at all costs to go to rome. in 1508, giorgione worked at the fondaco dei tedeschi in venice. even though giovanni did not stay there long his visit must have had a decisive impact upon him. vasari relates that in udine giovanni learned to draw animals and especially birds, while out hunting with his father. when he reached rome, he became the foremost draftsman and painter of every natural object - animals, draperies, instruments, vases, landscapes, buildings, and verdure; in which not one of the young men of that school surpassed him. but above all, he took supreme delight in depicting birds of every kind, insomuch that in a short time he filled a book with them, which was so well varied and beautiful that it was a recreation and a delight to raffaello > the loggia of raphael .. the hedge of half-naked men lying in ambush, described in a dream of john ball, is another leafy ornamental border including threads of living flesh; it is like ginevere's garden seen through her fingers. the strength of the fellowship or the viability of the design, depends on a commonality of substance between plant and man. jack straw or will green, bearing stalks of wheat or leafy twigs, in their hats for rallying signs, are green man with some of the associations of earth magic in their persons. man is not just protected by the shrubbery, at his most vigorous and effective he is grafted together in hybrid form with the plant. the designs which show creatures grazing or foraging among the plants like brother rabbit or strawberry thief do not set the animals in opposition to the plant life but show a symbiotic involvement and imply a sharing of substance. the rabbits are nose to nose over the acorn which can be both ground level and tree-top as the ranks of oaks climb up the design. the life forms do not breed, they feed, move, spread leaves or ears, split, conjoin and grow as animal-plant forms obeying the logic of vegetable growth. the seed of strawberries are marked with flecks that find their echo in the speckled markings on the birds' throats and breasts as if fruit and fowl share the same nature > interlacings .. over the past 20 years, i have realized a number of installations that can be categorized as dealing with the phenomenon of cultural tourism. in general, i question the artificial values of our civilization; consequently, this provokes a reflection in my work on the way history and culture are visually presented. we belong to a generation that goes to travel agencies, fitness centers, and casinos at the same time that it builds atomic bomb shelters. we spend our weekends visiting 'interesting' historical sites > guillaume bijl .. what boyle was attracted by in this world was the exciting sensory stimuli with which they were experimenting and the mass response to these experiments. at ufo boyle gave performances of his projections of chemical and physiological processes that filled the whole space, acquiring a tension. the images became an accompaniment and intensification of the music, the dancing. ufo was an instant success and for that reason it spawned imitations: within six weeks, according to the international times, there were 120 groups in london doing similar light shows. but ufo remained unique. up and down the country and to france, holland, germany, usa, canada and mexico, never found a place that seemed so magical. asked on west german tv about looking back on ufo, 'i think several thousand young londoners are advancing on middle age with a heavy load of nostalgia. one day, we thought maybe my friend c would enjoy it. we took him along and then started up our projectors. we never saw him again all night. in the morning he was not among the few sleeping revelers left. but eventually we found him having breakfast in a nearby bar. he never referred to our light show. i was disappointed, but i didn't ask him about it and he never wanted to come with us again. then one day he was picked up by the police and committed to a mental hospital. he escaped and came to us. the police came to get him and he jumped out of a 3rd floor window to get away. he was taken to hospital in a coma and with many broken bones. i sat there all night waiting. he grabbed my arm. "i've had a dream. we went to this vast, underground cave thundering with deafening tribal music. it was full of lovely people who danced as though they were in a strange trance, not in time to the music, but as though the dancers and the music were both in time to some other unseen event. and on the walls they had huge paintings, but not like the pantings you do, these were moving rivers of color that flowed into one another, erupting, foaming, and exploding > mark boyle's journey to the surface of the earth .. in europe, the volume of drug paperbacks issued were nowhere near that of the united states. and europe has never experienced druge problems of the scope and nature as we in the u.s. have. in general, the "drug problem" is peculiar to our culture; it was viewed as the american disease as early as the first decade of the 20th century. jack flasher deeply felt all the poetic romance of a mystical adventurer. he halted a moment to gaze at the much fabled and long sung haight-ashbury. in his peak then, 600ug of lds magnifying, accelerating his thinking-associating processes a thousand times. idea after idea, association after association sped past the grain of sand that was now his consciousness in a such a torrential deluge that his mind couldn't possibly walk a straight path if his life depended on it [c mcnaughton jr / mindblower] > dope menace .. that advertising was a disruptive, disfiguring presence was already recognized by the lawmakers of many countries during the second half of the 19th century. the french often joke about the best-known law in france, the one forbidding advertising, since the slogan 'defense d'afficher. loi du 29 julliet 1881' is painted or stenciled in large letters on such walls as are public property and must be left unscathed. that stern provision is in itself an advertisement, imposed as part of the liberal regulations which circumscribed press censorship. the same law also led to the creation of the advertising kiosk or bollard, the cylindrical hoarding which may originate in second empire paris, but which became a common device in many european and some latin american cities. paradoxically, soon after the law was passed, 'serious' artists were drawn into advertising, and some painters, particularly the creative users of lithography, produced posters for singers and actors, for periodicals and humble domestic products, for soaps or patent foods, which adorned those very bollards as well as many blank and privately owned city walls > the jucidious eye .. since 1969, the inclusion of the written word and language has been intrinsic to dine's work. but it was not until the 1990's and his preoccupation with photography that poetry acquired a renewed significance as a fully-fledged element. he now wrote on the wall of his studio or on a board and then, in a next step, captured them with the camera. it was a process, like drawing. thematically, dine uses those photographs to illustrate his very personal relationship with the written word, which, since he is dyslexic, has always had not just a semantic side but above all a graphical dimension. he digests books from back to front, against the normal reading direction > this is how i remember now

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12.21.08 private collectors account for almost 2/3 of contemporary art purchases in the salesroom. many of these collectors are uncomfortable with their own judgement. they want advice about which lots to bid on, and how much to bid. most of all they want reassurance that, whey they hang the art, their friends wil not ridicule their purchase. some potential bidders consult other collectors, some rely on dealers. many rely on auction specialists, who come to be perceived as art consultants rather than salespeople. like all marketing professionals, they understand that buying behavior is determined in part by the group to which an individual aspires. a bidder may hope to attain visible membership in the group "owners of important art" or may seek membership on a museum board through donation of an important painting. a hedge fund manager may bid for a work that will assure he is seen by his own reference group as both cultured and wealthy. a foreign bidder may covet a highly recognizable work that conveys status in her own country because it is coveted in the west. a local buyer may care little about historical importance or aesthetic value, but focus on whether a work is recognizable from across the room as a warhol. prominent nyc art dealer richard feigen says he often exceeds clients' limits when bidding for them - whether a museum or an individual. "my job is not to be a robot but to use my knowledge and instincts for my client." feigen says that in 47 years only one client has objected to his exceeding their limit > the $12 million stuffed shark .. things familiar do not always give rise to their natural association. everyone must have observed, how the nostrils play in hard breathing. we have seen that there is a muscle which is the principal agent in this action; and it may be felt swelling during inspiration, when the finger is pressed on the upper lip, just under the nostril. it is the depressor aloe nasi. the action of this muscle, under the roots of the hairs on the lip, sensibly moves them; and as all passionate excitements influence the respiratory actions, the nostrils and moustaches necessaily participate in the movement in violent passions. thus, although the hair of the upper lip does conceal the finer modulations of the mouth, as in woman, it adds to the character of the stronger and harsher emotions > the anatomy and philosophy of expression as connected with the fine arts .. who hasn't once dreamed of walking paths of other worlds where sands are stained with gold, where feet move with difficulty when not elevated in the lightness of flight; or strumming a harp on the frontier of this life and the other? the physical deformity that produces a heavy dream following many hours of insomnia; the inspiration that, personified by a butterfly that flutters before our face, always in conflict with reason; the blizzard in which a man at odds with justice or craving it, is transformed; the smooth slipping away in the surface of a river with strange colors, of a marble statue, evocative of ofelia's suicide in the tragedy of hamlet; or the repressed desire which strengthens an adolescent's thoughts on the way to a nightmare. all of this which lives and dominates the unreal world of dreams, has been interpreted through the masterful lens of this mexican photographer [spanish xlation: r.c.] > nacho lopez .. has the line between reality and fantasy entirely dissolved in dubai? here the traditional pace of development seems outmoded, as any idea is rapidly transformed into a built reality. although it's still too early to accurately assess the full impact of "develoment dubai" a number of causes for concern already exist. the majority of dubai's "population" are expatriates with no formal political influence, so civil rights are more or less reduced to work, security and consumption. this cosmo-cultural security state has no common ritual calendar; it has relative religious freedom, while bowing to an economic cycle that operates as a permanent fun fest. all shopping days are holydays. expo-iszation functions as a common aesthetic basis for different expressions of lifestyle and habits of consumptions, and the theatrical language, which is mechanically iterated by dubai's inflated generic architecture, has become the vernacular expression of the global space > verb crisis #6 .. the first video equipment we bought was an audio synthesizer. that's how important transcoding has been in our lives. in early 1970 i saw an ad in village voice for an electronic music studio above bleeker street cinema. it had a buchla synthesizer. in the '70s it was a bloody lot of money, so we could only afford one hour. we brought our big open reel video player and a monitor and cables, lugged it all upstairs. the young man showed us the different modules and left and didn't come back for 3 hours. we tested our idea in only one direction, video to audio. we used the video signal to voltage-control the oscillators and it worked beautifully. it was confirmation that a new artistic practice was possible, but we coudn't afford $20 an hour. through the grapevine, ems whose synths brian eno and others used, were in town from london with a few machines. buchla or moog was made to order and cost a fortune. i told my father in iceland "we are into something important and we need this machine." he said "i'll send you $5000," just like that. a few years later i mentioned that i still owed him the money. he said "no you don't. i gave both your sisters $5000, so we're even." he died shortly thereafter and we discovered he had no money > steina 1970-2000 .. compare a play by shakespeare with the typical product, of equal length, of the proverbial ape at the typewriter, who types every letter with equal probability. the algorithmic information content of the latter is overwhelmingly likely to be much greater than that of the former. but it is absurd to say that the ape has produced something more complex than the work of shakespeare. randomness is not what we mean by complexity. instead let us define what i call effective complexity, the information content of the regularities of an entity as opposed to its incidental features. a random [incompressible] string has no regularities except its length, and thus very little effective complexity. likewise something extremely regular, such as a string consisting entirely of 1's, will also have little effective complexity, because its regularities can be described very briefly. to achieve high effective complexity, an entity must have intermediate information content and obey a set of rules requiring a long description. but that is just what we mean when we say that the grammar of a certain language is complex, or that a certain conglomerate corporation is a complex organization, or that the plot of a novel is complex - we mean that the description of the regularities takes a long time. the same is true of the u.s. tax code, or of japanese culture / murray gell-mann > art and complexity .. in the perfect, illusionary atmosphere, drawn by the most magnetic of modern rituals: form + color + music + movement = dance, the lighting is entirely indirect either glowing out of the objects themselves the glowing tables or so dim & blue that it acquires an almost solid quality, becoming part of the furniture, a palpable liquid that people must swim through instead of walking across. everything seems different. everything is exciting / panorama int ltd; blue one co ltd, shenzhen; design: horace pan + jeff lau; shenzhen cscec decoration engr co; key materials: paint, synth-leather mirror-stainless steel glass, fiber optics > club design

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10.31.08 .. an earlier work, consisting of two identical piles of pick up stix, with one pile scattered randomly in the standard way a game of pick up stix is begun and the other meticulously placed so as exactly to resemble it. one pile is, so to speak, a 3-dimensional portrait of the other. but which is which? being a portrait of something, like being randomly strewn, turns out to be a relational property, invisible to the eye. who would have known? you can't tell whether something is a work of art by perceiving it, since something else can look just like it and not be. this was the case with duchamp's readymades, and is the case with many of friedman's pieces. pascal contrasted what he designated l'esprit de geometrie with l'esprit de finesse. as a philosophical poet as well as a mathematician, he possessed both and never felt that they were incompatible with one another. friedman often reiterated the first principles of minimal art: self-evident intention, candid process, and unitary form. but for all the polymorphous nature of his oeuvre, which includes works from bubble gum, spaghetti, garbage bags, toothpicks, exclsior, tin foil, and feces, friedman has consistently circled around a few core concerns, repeatedly returning to probe from new perspectives, primarily how we perceive and ascribe significance to things and the transformative acty of paying close attention > tom friedman .. the writers had their piecebooks. their names began to seep into the consciousness of the kids who patrolled the neighborhoods of new york in the late 1960s. the reaction was natural: you see a name appear everywhere like some plague, a name that has nothing to do with selling laundry detergent or afro sheen - and you want to know the cause, and if there is a cure. most skipped the vaccine and fell victim to the full blown sickness. the disease would spread from walls to buses to subway trains by the early 1970s. what was initially a communication between a select few became a common visual language that confronted civilians on their way to work. the piecebooks came into being, humbly, because the writers and the fans of writers wanted autographs. signatures, mementos, proving that you'd encountered the likes of a taki183 or a joe182. elaborate signatures swapped technicolor letterforms, the profile of a cartoon character might replace a letter in a piece, letters would become candy canes, or sport a frame cracked open like the liberty bell, or sometimes they'd bubble up like microwave popcorn. letterforms curved and stabbed other letters with razor-sharp arrow edges. piecebooks helped to spread the gospel, helped to educate, made it possible for bronx styles to influence ideas from other boroughs. manhattan's high school of art and design must get props for early piecebook cultivation. a magnet school that drew artistically inclined kids from all five boroughs > piecebook .. at the opposite pole from parametric design in engineering, evolutionary algorithms have been used to produce artworks - drawings and virtual 3d sculptures - by computers. curiously enough one of the pioneers here was richard dawkins, who in the blind watchmaker described a program of his own devising for producing drawings depicting something like the forms of animals or plants, which he called biomorphs. dawkins' purpose was not aesthetic, but to make some graphic points about the creative potential of the combination of variation with selection in natural evolution. the biomorphs were nevetheless highly influential on those interested in the artistic potential of e.a.'s. what emerged alongside trees was a cornucopia of plants, insects, birds, table lamps, crossed swords, fighter planes. dawkins decided on arbitrary 'aesthetic selection' criteria as compoard with the many complex aspects of fitness on which the environment of a real organism acts. in this respect the biomorph has affinities with the evolution of adornament studied by the 19th century anthropologists and archaeologists, in which different criteria for aesthetic selection seem to have been applied by craftsmen copying decorative motifs. in order to get somewhere nearer to a model of natural selection however 'we should forget', says dawkins, 'about rococo ornamentation and all other visually defined qualities. we should concentrate, instead, upon simulating nonrandom death > evolution of designs: biological analogy in architecture and applied art .. from the prose of unstable diffusion grows a poetics of glowing objects. one that, significantly, comes to particularly detailed expression in twilight. bialobrzeski rejects the zone system of lighting developed by ansel adams in 1941, which went on to become the general photographics standard. rather, his ideal light is dusk, another realm of the transitory and in-between, an illumination of spaces of possibility. the twilight restores the power of self-assertion to artificial lighting and an inner reality to objects. painters from elsheimer to vermeer to magritte strove to emphasize light as a source in itself rather than, as was usual, letting it glisten unlocalized throughotut the picture. the apparition becomes concrete, earthly and human. in daylight, things are illuminated and robbed of their own radiant power. in the dark of night they are disembodied as indistinct shadows. in this special atmosphere which bialobrzeski seeks and intensifies, the self-sufficiency of diffuse urban spaces is a specific statement. in these noiseless, concentrated photographs, we are lost in transitional spaces, times, light > lost in transition .. although shore's images rarely contained the ambiguous theatrical cues or southern gothic drama of eggleston, which suggested a narrative, a seedy underworld, lurking underneath the surface, the 4x10 street photographs are extreme examples of the way in which shore's photos of intersections were rendered seemilngly intert and arrested by the view camera, making each detail appear potentially revealing of an underlying narrative that we can never access. in uncommon places, the same technique turned everyday objcts into props or clues. frozen gestures became suggestive, and figures sometimes looked as if they were cast in a cinematic scene. in such images, we can see the possible origins of jeff wall's constructed pedestrian views, in which he stages awkward or tense public confrontations on north american streets. it's possible that the look of shore's concise street scenes opened up the potential for images in which the photographer could become an active participant in the construction of a tableau that hovered between the contemporary genre scene and cinematic artifice. after shore, wall, crewdson and dicorcia took up the idea of the photograph as a construction, seizing on the disturbing details singled out from everyday scenes and making them even more suggestive > stephen shore .. the commute that people endure every day in los angeles provides the perfect audience for something other than outdoor advertising and i feel one thing that could be done is a series of art billboards along a mile or two of freeway. there might be twenty consecutive huge lcd billboards that a curator could use to organize exhibits. that would function exclusively for artwork. i started making car photographs in 1988 because that's what los angeles is. drivers seem to be in a private room on wheels. i took out the front passenger seat of my car and mounted a medium format roll-film camera on a tripod weighed down with sandbags. often i reevaluated my technical approach to come up with the most effective way to make as many pictures as possible while still maintaining, technically, an extremely high resolution image. am i going the same speed as the subject? is my car lined up properly? is the subject of interest? at one point, i tried to take a picture of every person i could along a particular stretch of freeway to eliminate personal preferences. at another time i made photographs every 30s whether there was a car besides me or not. this became more of a buddhist way of thinking - a scientific study, an attempt at pure documentation. i was quite curious how these photographs would look - especially since they were dealing with subjects that interested me conceptually: a reverence for image, speed, class, invisibility. things that photography can disclose. drive, look, and photograph. that was the beauty of it. it didn't matter where i went. i drove everywhere until there was no light left / andrew bush > drive .. according to the oldest-known treatise on gardening, the early 13th century japanese sakutei-ki based on a lost chinese original, the purposes of the garden were six-fold. the perfections of the garden were art and age, expansiveness and seclusion, space and abundant water. from the outset, the japanese have sought to live in harmony with nature rather than in opposition to it: even in their primitive pit-dwellings the portico extending before the door broke down the barrier between internal and external space, integrating house and site. this was the origing of the veranda. with its development went landscaping. texts dating back to the 11th century deal with recreation of nature in the small space of a garden and even the self-conscious emulation of celebrated beauty spots with poetic associations evocative of emotion. zen buddhist gardeners preferred abstraction calculated to elicit a subjective response. though some planting is admitted, rocks and raked gravel or moss may alone represent the primary features of the natural world, earth and water. these dry landscapes are not entered but contemplated in meditation on the significance of natural phenomena > the east: buddhists, hindus and the sons of heaven

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10.26.08 .. the commodified nature of much of contemporary art, always a factor of art production from at least the renaissance, is no longer seen as unusual. contemporary art is actively celebrated as a material commodity in its own right as a prioritized form of commodity fetish. it is no coincidence that koons was a wall street broker for six years before becoming an artist. financial investment in contemporary art also confers a degree of what the french sociologist bourdieu refers to as 'cultural capital', the forms and applications of knowledge that give individuals a perceivable benefit and therefore status in society, also act interchangeably with social and economic capital. all knowledge carries a price and weight of exchange so to speak. bourdieu's model provides a paradigm of sorts that sees knowledge of aesthetic value - here equated not only with knowledge but also with the valency of ideas per se and their ability to interact with material networks of economic power > the art business .. in london in the early 70s there was a crazy television set in my house. by playing around with the antenna and tweaking the controls i could suddenly obtain fascinating colours. in those days vcrs didn't yet exist, let alone the ability to freeze frames or to rewind. i was therefore face to face with the current events, live, camera in hand and sometimes very close to the screen so i could frame things differently. i found myself in a situation very similar to that of street photography where a good image is a question of controlled chance, a kind of small miracle that arises when you're receiptive and concentrated. had there been more technical means at my disposal at the time, the images wouldn't have been as good, or as fresh, but simply the result of a conceptual excercise. digital technologies have enabled me to return to these images and work on the prints in a more controlled way and, without altering the images, to recover a luminosity close to the one emanating from a television screen, giving the images a raw truth, a screen that instead of concealing, reveals > harry gruyaert: tv shots .. the experiments of computer scientist frieder nake and siemens software engineer goerg nees were exhibited in 1965 at the studio gallery of stuttgart technical college - the world's first exhibition of computer art. in contrast to the usual advantages or specific qualities of a machine, in nees' image production the factor of coincidence and unpredictability played a role. he consciously wrote instructions whose effects he couldn't foresee. this gave the machine a certain degree of autonomy. the more autonomous a machine seems to act, the more astounding its results are for people > art machine machine art .. emotional impact is not a property we seek in the design of a tax form or instructions for a new dvd player. posters have less in common with such documents while seductiveness is essential. first attention, then interest, and - a few seconds later - information transfer. typography, color and image are not always present at the same time in a poster and one can be sufficient. with the ever increasing use of the internet, rapidly distributable flyers and picture and text messaging, the importance of the poster for announcing events or new products has waned and will continue to do so. distributing bits is more efficient than dragging molecules around. the poster has now become a test of artistic skill rather than an advertisement. the content can simply be an excuse for conceptual and visual experimentation. the nonprofit sector and cultural institutions continue to make use of this medium > new poster art .. for ruskin, as for morris later on, symmetry, order, and typology could not be substitute for craft, skill, imagination. a decade later, in principles of decorative design, dresser would write "i might multiply illustrations of this principle of fitness, or adaptation to purpose, as manifested in plants, to an almost indefinite extent; but when all had been said we should yet have the simple truth before us, that the chief end which we should have in creating any object, is that of rendering it perfectly fitted to the proposed end. in primitive culture, the oxford ethnologist tylor stated that "the early development of arts may be traced not to a blind instinct, but to a selection, imitation, and gradual adaptation and improvement of objects and operations which nature, the instructor of primeval man, set before him." taylor then listed tool after tool, weapon after weapon, and artifact after artifact that had resulted from the slow and steady evolution toward greter functionality: hatchet into battle-axe, javelin into bow and arrow, club into boomerang, rattles and drums into pipes and stringed instruments. "complex elaborate and highly reasoned as are the upper stages of these arts, it is to be remembered that their lower stages begin with mere direct imitation of nature, copying the shelter which nature provides and the propagation of pants which nature performs" > design in the age of darwin .. the prohibition of figurative art by jurists in the islamic hadith who considered it an infringement on god's sole power to create life, forced artists to direct their creative energies to calligraphy which later decorated architectural structures, coins, texiles, and objects of all kinds and materials. arabic calligraphy became the unifying element of islamic art and architecture. when images were used alongside secular texts, as in persian book paintiings, the image took on a flat and symbolic style so as to not recreate life. movable type was originally developed for latin typography, which is why using it for arabic or persian causes the alteration of the type. latin type is based on the unit of letter, whereas arabic is on the unit of word.. the neubau 55 arabic edition by the designer shaharzad khan is an adaptation of stefan gandl's roman typeface neubau 55. gandl himself suggested that hkan should do this. a modern arabic variant of this very austere typeface by gandl was produced by a laborious process giving due consideration to the basic framework of speech and connotation-determined arabic script > arabesque: graphic design from the arab world and persia .. some find balthus' work inhospitable to the female viewer. others find it brilliant and occasionally disturbing but not objectionable. others yet see the power of the images to be overruling the possible vulnerablility of the figures. therese revant may be even more disturbing than jeune fille au chat, since there the girl is 'asleep' or caught in possibly erotic reverie, and the image offered makes us voyeurs. if we fail to see the disburbing exposure of eroticism, the gluttonous cat in the foreground - fat, licking, seemingly pregnant - warns us. putting the adolescent with her semi-bare legs and indifferent look so close to the viewing space, the work enforces, in ways the other two do not, a reflection on where we stand in relation to this picture and also to its predecessors, the countless bathers, rapes of europe, suicidal lucretials, sleeping venuses and other nameless figures; and let's not forget, those cuddly little children redeemed as 'putti' > balthus: time suspended

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9.28.08 .. people don't draw anymore and never develop an ability to see as a result. i learned how to draw letters and understand good typography. i was also good with pen and ink and all the other materials we used. it did take longer and i'm thankful for my mac. the computer is democratic, therefore you never know how educated the person is that you are working for anymore. my experience is the better the artist the worse the businessman. great artwork is difficult to produce if money is the primary motivation / gerard huerta: designer "ac/dc" > band id: the ultimate book of band logos .. in comparison to cities like paris, london, new york and rome, tokyo lacks romance. nor does it have an architectural icon. tokyo tower never quite made it, nor do the towers at roppongi hills. tokyo city hall and yoyogi olympic stadium are squalid civic structures that have no photogenic allure. even compared with asian cities like beijing and shanghai, tokyo is a monochromatic blur. its amorphous sprawl divides the city into distinct districts surrounding the void of the imperial palace. one has to take circuitious routes to travel thorugh the city. it is a strangely indeterminate journey and the 350km of the shuto expressway is the city's defining monument. a memorable affirmation to this is bestowed by a scene in andrei tarkovsky's solaris. in the film, 1971 tokyo stands in for a speculative moscow or leningrad, viewed from a car speeding on the same levitating stretch of the shuto that mega-projects like roppongi hills now overlook - the undisputed once and future city. the rate of rebuilding is so rapid that its features are in a constant state of change. the impact and vitality of the city, the experience of being in it and the powerful visceral attraction of tokyo has no equal > tokyolife: art & design .. i used to treat artistic creation as an occupation, but i felt too heavy. even if i regard it an occupation, it won't repay what you've invested like in other business or industry. but spiritually it's been very rewarding. historical content probably doesn't mean anything anymore. as for the ancient things they are decadent. that kind of life, i mean. someone like me can hardly resist being undisciplined, sluggish, irresponsible, drinking every day. in the novel plums in a golden vase one of the characters invites guests for dinner at his house. to block the ugliness of his courtyard he puts a big screen with carved flowers. this kind of aesthetics is interesting. modern life is too mechanical, and modern people lack interests in things around them. my opinion is quite conservative. one work's perfection and timeliness ins't in its momentary effects. for example, no matter how many years later you take this work out again it still has to be a perfect one. maybe i'm just too attached to classical details / hong lei > the red should languish and green must grow .. aldcroft's infinity machine was, in effect, a souped-up kaleidoscope with mirrors, prisms, and a lens at one end. a bright bulb shone through a plexiglas cylinder filled with celluloid strips, shards of colored glass, and strips of shiny metal suspended in mineral oil. the cylinder, powered by a small servo-motor, would rotate at varying speeds while the reflective obects would tumble and dance in the light, mimicking the shimmering filigree of an acid hallucination. there was something of the alchemist about aldcroft. he worked alone, tinkering with controls, adusting his instrument to achieve the optimum effect. "he became the projector" recalled one colleague. "he became the light". several artists tried to copy his patented system but failed. "there are moments when i feel i am witnessing the beginnings of new religions" said jonas mekas, director of the film-makers' cinemateque, where so many multimedia artists previewed their work. "something is happening and is happening very fast" he said "it has everything to do with light - and everybody feels it and is in waiting - often, desperately" > spaced out: radical environments of the psychedelic sixties .. built with galvanized steel profiles, a galvanized steel roof, grey concrete floors and interior cladding of lexan 76-18 polycarbonate, the manuel valdes studio is exceedingly simple, and as the architect readiy admits, it is something of a cosmetic project. working with an industrial warehouse, anton garcia abril determined that the best solution was to veil the unwanted complexities of the archictecture. "sometimes architecture is all about covering up. a space can be well proportioned yet full of elements which alter the ambience and fill it with noise. this can be transformed by using a simple trick: dressing up the space. the key is a covering that can create a special light and draw attention to specific details. it will promote the attractive features and hide the undesirable ones behind a light pleated plastic wall veil." it is a well lit, clean, and neutral space that makes difficult sculpuing work easier. the translucent lexan covering allows us to unite all the areas of the warehouse. the external spaces become work and exhibition areas while the warehouse as a whole improves > architecture in spain .. video art came to california the same way as it came everywhere else: in fits and starts, and then in waves. but the isolated bursts of experimentation that occurred mostly in san francisco bay area in the late 1960s, followed by the explosion of activity throughout the state in the 1970s, proceeded in directions unlike anywhere else in the world. visual artists in california embraced the new medium freely and with an ease that appears to bear less of the detached intellectualism found in new york and europe. of course, artists in california were every bit as serious as their counterparts in other regions, but even when west coast artists produced the same types of rigorous formal experiments and technologically oriented investigations happening elsewhere, it was the artist' own personalities that managed to take center stage in the work, making california feel a bit lighter and more cocky in its coolness. throughout its history, california video turns again and again to humor and the charisma of the artist to carry its ideas and hold the interest of the viewer, even when it is at its most deeply conceptual, its most stridently political, its most darkly expressive and obsessively esoteric > california video: artists and histories .. more than 20 years of experiments have gradually led me towards the simplest structural solution. one requires a structure consisting of a vertical surface covered in synthetic felt, which replaces the soil and retains water. plants are attached to that layer of felt so that the roots latch on to its surface. the vertical surface consists of a vertical panel of some solid, rigid, waterproof material that is both nontoxic and rot-proof. an automatic clock-regulated humidification system moistens the felt. a tray collects water. plant roots are no longer in a volume. the difference may seem trivial but a 3mm support weighs only 3kg/m^2 when wet, while a 100mm substrate weighs 100kg. in addition, it will not be subject to settling over time nor will it be deformed by changes in temperature. the micro-gaps between the fibers dilate in frost conditions without changing their overall structure precisely because it is nonwoven. the roots of certain shrubs reach up to several yards long, with nothing impeding their growth / patrick blanc > the vertical garden: from nature to the city